Thursday, 21 March 2019


INTRODUCTION: Brief Background of Yungur People: Before we discuss the concept of God base on Yungur ethnic group, it is good to have brief background information of Yungur people. Yungur was not the initial name for the language group; rather Ɓəna is the real name for Yungur people. The etymology of Yungur was from Yongon, which were name of a great and the paramount chief of the Ɓəna people. The name Ɓəna is a plural of Ɓəne, which means a single person of this group. But the real meaning of this word is not clearly stated in any available literature. However, oral tradition has affirmed the plural form is a question been asked ‘Where are they?’ which will be literaly pronounced ‘Ɓan nau, Ɓənnau to the present word Ɓəna.’

Briefly, Yongon was a popular king who was very rich and kind, he was very hospitable and generous to people at large. Yongon did remarkable work in the lives of Ɓəna people by integrating them and emphasizing love and hospitality to one another. He could do things necessary to see that people lived in peace with one another; because of his mightiness and eminent attitude that makes him famous, people came from far and near to see and visit him. While people were coming from another tribe, most especially Dəna (Ɓəna Lala) people, they used to say, “We are going to see Yongor” instead of Yongon, while Fulani would say, “We are going to see Yongur” (instead of Yongon) until the time that Yongon himself died. Subsequently, while these people were coming to Yungur (Ɓəna) communities they would say, “We are going to Yongur’s people.” Progressively, Yongur has come to take over as the name for Ɓəna Yongon people until now Yongon has finally changed to Yungur. “Ɓəna is now the name for a wide tribe. Such tribes are as follows: Yungur, Lala, Mboi, Roba, Libo, Fali and so forth.” Stoke.

The Concept of God among Yungur People: The question now is “Who is seen to be the supreme God to Yungur people?” Just like Jewish people, on a general note, Yungur share the same culture and tend to have concept of God based on how God introduced himself in different cases. As Jewish would call God, Jehovah Rapher, or Jehovah Jared etc Yungur people have different names for such instances. Before the missionary came to Yungur Land, Yungur people have the sense of God in whom they believed that he is their problem solver. Oral tradition affirmed that Etgunda is the supreme God literally means “the Creator or, person who owns Heaven” and this name is simply means Yahweh or I am, it is and; was believed to be dare not mentioned the name.

It was also believed that you approached your maker ‘Etgunda’ through the small deities or gods own by family, clan, or otherwise the individual shrine. Liura ‘God’ and Ga ‘Almighty God’ are also seems to have the same sense of supremacy but have different capacity. Since Etgunda is so powerful and seems to be Alpha and Omega, who also bring the beginning and the end of everything, Yungur man is scared to call his name for any reason other than during dead, and unhealthy challenges probably to answer the why me questions at sacred places. While people were quiet about Etgunda, Liura becomes friend and easy to go God who has no wrath and do no harm. For such reason, Liura becomes supreme and merciful at any time, though it is also believed that Liura has anger too but not as horror as that of Etgunda.

So Liura is closely related to the present God of the Christian and is maintain as God today. Ga in some way related to the Sun god of the Egyptian practice. All together, the practice of the triune supremacy is ascribing by Ɓəna people to be omnipotent and omniscience God whose presence found anywhere and everywhere.

Moreover, the means in reaching supreme God whom Ɓəna people had knowledge with reference to his supremacy were through the following triune nature of God: (1) through Kaso “Altar,” although it is literally a triune stick with a calabash on top were Pagans use to make sacrifice and offer tithes to appease god. (2) through Mbugunsa: Wiso, a kind of shrine, Sãusa, Ambwa and, (3) through other minor shrines belonging to clan, family, personal, which are all answerable to the triune God mentioned above. These sovereign God is said to live above all other things in heaven and he speak to the Yungur people through Ambwa, “Spirits of peace” Sausa, “Providing Spirit” and Wiso “Horror and judging Spirit” the three major way to speak to the Liura. With these triune concepts, every Yungur family has only one priest who is to lead people to the shrine or to be guiding and leading other members to the shrine.

Nevertheless, the Chief priest has right to enter to the general cult own by the whole tribe is called Pa Ndalta who had received his handing over from Yagun Gunda “the first man who was the same as the Biblical Adam.” While the High priest is both the Paramount ruler who is taking charge of all needs and is both high priest and king. All things were under his command with his palace chiefs other maiden having different responsibility assign to each representative. Yungur people are now 93.5% Christian, 4.5% Muslims and 2% Pagans, and among the 93.5% Christians maintained Liura as the sovereign God, though Ga “Almighty God” and other names mentioned above are found to be attached to their given names but none of the 93.5% practice paganism again.

Yungur Theory of Heaven and Hell: Haven stated the concept of God in Yungur ethnic group; it is good to know that Yungur people also have the concept of Heaven and Hell even before Christianity in their culture. Yungur people believed that everyone will one day return to his ancestors (which they sometime mean ‘creator’) in Heaven called ‘Gunda’ and Hell which is call “‘Ara’ ən nem kwasa” Hell ‘at the left hand side in heaven.’ These two places are both in heaven but; it is believe that Hell is by the left hand side of God while Heaven as Paradise or bosom is at the right hand of God. Yungur Account of Creation: If there was concept of God to Yungur man as stated above, then account of creation is also ascribe to him. So the question is how did all things came to existence base on Yungur account?

There is no written account recorded as to how Ɓəna Yongon (Yungur) people believed on the creation of the universe. However, oral tradition has it that Etgunda “the Creator” was and is the epitome and the creator of the universe. Yungur man believed that Etgunda is the owner of all things including man. He created all things and he owns all things. The tradition does not mention what day each thing were created only that human being were made while all things was created and after creation of man, a woman was created as a wife to him then God handed over the powers and the source of all creatures to him.

Consequently, as stated above, there were no account as to what he begun to create order than he began to create the world itself then followed by firmament, sun, moon, and stars, water and tress beast and all things in them. God ended with Human beings, he created them male and female as mentioned above. Findings also has it that God form human in a miraculous and special way using special mud, breath a spirit of life in him, and handed over Ndalta ‘Ark of God’s creatures’ source of powers of creations’ to Ɓəna man on the seventh day.

Furthermore, Ndalta the source and powers of all creatures God used in creating all things including humans and handed it over to the first man with a command to use it in order to subdue all creatures including the earth. This is why Ɓəna person does not agree that God can cause one to die but someone else can take life base on the reasons base known to the actor, so any person that dies a true Ɓəne person will prefer consulting sorcerers to tell him or her cause of his beloved one.

Ndalta was not built nor been neither designed by any human being nor created by humans but it is believed that after God created man and handed over Ndalta to Ɓəna man to stand as a covenant of authority to rule, subdue and control the earth.

Conversely, the early converts seem to have a different account, which might be possible that they were influence with the account recorded in the Bible. This is because the difference of their account with pagans is that all creation that was completed and been recorded in six days and Etgunda rested in seventh day. But not all creatures were clearly recorded as to what was created on a certain day. Though pagans too believed that Etgunda rested but they did not affirmed that he rested on the seventh day, and that his rest has nothing to do with creation because he is so powerful and able to do all things just by words. This believed is somehow related to the Bible because both account does not mentioned that Etgunda who is the creator has used his hand or do something’s before any creature came to being. Both pagans and early converts to Christianity also believed that human beings are in Etgunda’s form that Man is in his creator’s form. We look like him who created us they affirmed. But Etgunda is mighty and all in all. No one could talk about him or seek to know his parent, for he does not have the beginning and no one could ever imagine his end.

Origin of Human: So the question is where does these act of creations take place and when? Ɓəna people believed that the origin of human being is from God, which he performed his act of creations at Gunda “Heaven or through the east” and handed over the powers of creation to Yagun Gunda “the first man ever on earth.” Moreover, this took place through invoking Ndalta similar to the Bible record that the creation was done through Word, Ndalta was also the medium of pronouncement at which by it all things were made.

Therefore, base on the above account of creation human beings and all creatures came from Gunda Heaven through the East”

Conclusion: It is quiet important to know that God who is the creator is supreme and exist in Ɓəna tradition, religion, culture, faith and believes. Moreover, Ɓəna (Yungur) people honor his name and worship him in their own religious way before the coming of Christianity and Islam. This makes Ɓəna people unique and special and it gives clear understanding as to why Ɓəna people call themselves people or nation of heaven and see other tribes as Etkalta in singular and plural form as Ɓetkalta gentle or gentles or otherwise outcast. Conclusively, the previously mentioned account helps in understanding how one can work with true Ɓəne person as regard to his or her faith and believes.

Thursday, 18 September 2014




Saul Samuel


 Dr. Mathew Halley.

A sketch of Yungur Pəra Grammar.

¨       No/s                                   Serial number.
¨       Word.Sg                            word. singular
¨       Pro.Fm                       Pronominal form
¨       Sub.                           subject pronoun
¨       Obj.                           object pronoun
¨       Ind.Obj                       indirect object pronoun
¨       Pos.Adj                       possessive adjective
¨       Pos.Pro                       possessive pronoun
¨       Refl.Pro                      reflective pronoun
¨       Rep.Pro                      reciprocal pronoun
¨       Emp.Pro                     emphatic pronoun
¨       Log.Pro                      logophoric pronoun
¨       N                                       noun
¨       Dem                                   demonstrative
¨       Adj.Sz                                adjective of size
¨       Dett                                    determiner
¨                                 adjective of color
¨       Num                                  numeral
¨       Quant                                 quantifier
¨       pl.Mk                                 plural marker
¨       NP                                     noun phrase
¨       CTS.                                  core template structure
¨       DNPS.                                derivative noun phrase structure
¨       Adp.Mk                             adpositional. markers
¨       V-Pro.N                             verb-pronoun. noun
¨       Adp                                   adpositional
¨       Gl                                      gloss
¨       Ft.                                      free translation
¨       Lit.                                     literal translation
¨       Adp.Agr.Mk                                  adpositional. agreement. marker
¨       Agr.Mk                              agreement marker
¨       Pst.Mk.                              past marker
¨       Quet.Mk                            question marker
ü  ---->                                   point next to
ü  Ø                                       zero sign
ü                                            Pointing next to
ü                                            Pointing below

1.                  Introductionː- Yungur Pəra language is an African language spoken in Adamawa state of Nigeria. Spoken by over 95,000 people (1992),[1] however, the population update is estimated at about 975,000 people (2014) using the census population consensus. About 15, 000 are living in Diaspora. Out of the above estimate, about 65% are speaking Pəra dialect. Bena Yungur people are classified into three major zones, Lala, Bena, Mboi. The word Lala is offensive in relation to the word Pəra is a cover term for the northern clans. The target group is Bena (Yungur) people which are also classified into three major dialects. These are Pəra, Guto, and Voro while there is sub-dialect under these three major dialects. There are 17 clans under Pəra the target dialect and about 90% are Christians, 6% are practicing traditional religion while 4% are Moslems.           
      Previous Linguistic research: - There is a research currently going on in the language area on Luke Partnership. They were able to developed a proposal Orthography with some literatures in the language, one of them was 'Reading and writing in Yungur Language' with Yungur Words and Proverbs Literature by Manliura D Philemon. Some guys from France and Belgium also came in October 2011, last year and collected some data from the language with the aim of making Dictionary and Grammar sketch, one of them is Mark Van Develde.
      Apart from the above information, it's only I and Kefas who are making a trial in order to see how we can make reasonable write-ups in the language for further use as a tool of references. 
      Vernacular Publication:- The vernacular publication in the dialect are audio tabs with video plat in the language, even though these are of recent but the audio plat has been in used for long years ago.     
      Language use ː- The speakers also use Fulfulde, Dera or Hausa.[2] Primarily people use their language in the local communities, in the Church and in their conversations or daily interaction. They use Hausa for business purposes and interacting with the strangers, at times Fulfulde is being use to communicate with the Fulanis.
      The language of the wider communication in the area is Yungur Pəra dialect. There is also Yungur Words and Proverbs Literature by Manliura D Philemon with Yungur Body Chart by Saul Samuel that is being use by the people and some Primary schools not by the legal right but they are using it for teaching guide. 
      Classification ː- The linguistic classification of Bena Yungur as a whole is under North Volta Congo Gur, Ubangi Adamawa cluster. In Niger congo language family[3].

1.                 Noun Classes: -

# 1.1         In noun classes, root can have the following structure of prefix, infix and suffixes as it singular/ plural markers which made up an affixes.

No/s      Word.Sg    Prefix     Infix     Root   Suffix   Plural     Gloss 
1.          gō              -             -         gō       -sā       gōsā        hen.              
2.          nā              -             -         nā       -sā       nāsā         cow.   
3.          kwērē         ám-         -        kwēr    -ā        amkwera  ladle.          
4.          ɗə̀wẽ̀        ám-         -        ɗə̄w     -ã̄        ámɗə̄wã̄    soul.   
5.          tə̀btā           -             -tə̀-     tə̄b      -mse    təbtəmse   bone.
6.          ét               ɓ-                     ét        -ā        ɓétā          person.
7.          mã̀             yòò-        -         mã̀      -          yòòmã̀      mother.
8.          fe               am-        -          fe       -ya       amfiiya     ghost.
9.          hora            -            -          hora   -ta        hota          liver.   
# 1.2        Below is a diagram that illustrate the different noun class pairings.
                        Prefix                            Infix                     Sufix. 
                                                            - tə̀ -
                         ám-                                                        - à
                         ɓ-                                                           - ā
                         yóó-                                                        - ã̄
                                                                                       - 0
                          0 -                                                         -ííyā
                           a-                                                          - msē
                                                                                        - sā
                                                                                        - tā
                                                                                        - ttā
                                                                                        - ya
                                                                                  - me

# 1.3 Figure 1.0 Showing the Agreement Affixes derived from verbs on Noun.
Agreement Marker
Agreement Marker



- ə


/ ə / [ St. Verb]
- ə


/ ə / [ St. Verb]
- ə



- ə





- ə


- ə


- ə

/sə/  [ verb ]
- ə

/tə / [ verb ]
- ə


- ə

/mə/ [verb ]
- ə

Summary Statement: - The [-sə ] suffix appear to be an agreement marker between both nouns and verbs.  
# 1.4 The semantic characterizations of each noun class affix is written blew ː-



semantic characterizations


animate/ mostly human and plans











Sounds/Long or shapes



2. Pronominal Formsː-
# 2.1 The range of the pronominal form in Yungur Pəra can be described based on the following analysis ː-
# 2.2 Figure 2.0. A figure showing the different types of pronominal forms in Yungur Prəra dialect.





     Yungur is a head initial language.

     3. The Noun Phrase.

3.1             The Structure of the Noun Phraseː- There are two types of the structure of the noun phrase in Yungur Pəra dialect. We have Core Template Structure of the noun phrase CTS.NP and Derivative Noun Phrase Structure of the Noun phrase DNPS.NP, were noun can be also derived from an adjective of color whenever there is no noun in the noun phrase.
3.1.0                    For examples ː-
3.1.1           ɓōt wūyó gbá wá.
3.1.2           Nā wélō yō mbōltém wá.
3.1.3           Gōsə̀ fə̀tə̀ wélwél.
3.1.4           ɓét téɓá wā.
3.1.5           Nám fə̀tə̀tté wū dwēt.


                 N     Dem    Adj.Sz    Dett        

¨      ɓōt  wūyó   gbá      wá.
                    Tree  that      big         the
                      That big tree.    


     N   Dem  Adj.siz       Dett

¨      Nā    wélō      yō    mbōltém    wá.
         Cow   red      that     short       the
          That red short cow.



              N    Num
¨      Gō-sə̀  wél-wél.   fə̀tə̀
  Hen-pl.Mk red-red tow
     The tow red hens.


N              Dem    Num  Dett
Go-sə             yo     fətə   wa  
Hen-pl.Mk   those  Two  the 
Those two hens.


      N     Adj    Dett

¨      ɓ-ét   téɓá   wā.
     Pl.Mk person  black   this
Those black people.


             N      Num    Quant

¨      Nám  fə̀tə̀tté   dwēt.
     Meat  second   many
   The second many meat. 

Figure 2.1Chart of Costituent Words in Simple Yungur Noun Phrase.















The columns of a chart like this should always be in the order of that the words occur in the noun phrase of the data is being analyzed.
The chart of the above phrases shows us the:
A.    The order of all the constituents in the phrase.
B.     A word classes that can occur as modifiers and the specific words that are in the same column, and
C.     That the noun is the only word that can occur in every noun phrase. Noun is always obligatory, but all other modifiers are optional.  

CTS.NP = Noun ---> Dem ---> Num ---> Adj ---> Det --->Quant.
DNPS.NP = Noun ---> Adj ---> Dem ---> Num ---> Det ---> Quant.

4. Adpositional Phrase ː-
# 4.1          The Adpositionsː- These are the different types of the adpositional markers in Yungur Pəra dialect.
Adp.Mk             Gloss
1= ɗá                    - ' in/ into'
2= ə̀n                    - ' with'
3= á wírə̄              - ' at / in front                         of'
4= á ẽ́                   -  ' at the side of / at / by the side of'
5= á                      - 'on /at'
6= ā gūdū              -  ' under / at under'
7= á gúdúsə̄           -  ' at / under'
8= á kālə̀               -   ' near / beside'
     Note that some has | a- | prefix before the marker, this prefix is being written separately because it is also a word in the language and often was used to be written separately by the early writers of the language. So the | a- | there is more of a locative marker but at times can be attached to another

word before the location of the even in adpositional phrases.
# 4.2        The grammatical distinctions of all the markers can be seen based on the following categories of adpositional phrases and there classes.

S/No        Class     
1                ɗá 
2                ə̀n       
3                á wírə̄
4                á ẽ́
6                ā gūdū   
7                        á gúdúsə̄  
8                        á kālə̀   
Eample 1. ɗá       
A = ...tii ɗa hito.
            V Adp N
 Gl.     Put in  room
 Ft. he put it in the room.
B = ...bor ɗa hito.
           V  Adp  N
Gl. Remove in room
Ft. He came out of the room.
C = ...nə-ad ɗa numa.
         V-Pro.N  Adp  N
Gl. Give.him in  Market
Ft. He gave him in the market.

Example 2. ə̀n   
A = ...tər bəla ən ɓota.
           V   N  Adp    N
Gl.  Set  trap with stick
Ft. He set a trap with the stick.
B = ...gəb bwe ən Pirɓã.
            V    N  Adp    N
Gl.  Hit  dog with car
Ft. He hits the dog with the car.
C = ...kəb ən neme.
           V  Adp    N
Gl.  Eat with hand
Ft. He eats with his hand.
D = ...waa ən fəle.
            V   Adp   N
Gl.  farm with hoe
Ft. He farm with the hoe.

Example 3. á wírə̄
A = ...dum a wirə sibo.
          V    Adp    N
Gl.  Lost  at front of forest
Ft. It's lost in front of the forest.
B = ...wĩĩ a wirə wango.
         V   Adp    Pro.N
Gl.  Fall at front of yours
Ft.  He falls in front of you.
C = ɓaa wirə luma.
        Pro.N Adp.  N
Gl. They are front of Market
Ft. They are in front of the forest.

Example 4. á ẽ́
A = ...tii a ẽ seno.
             V  Adp. N
Gl. put at edge of river
Ft. He put it beside the river.
B = ...hur a ẽ seno.
              V  Adp   N
Gl. Forget at edge of river
Ft. He forgets it beside the river side.
C = ...waa a ẽ seno.
             V   Adp  N
Gl.  Farm at edge of river
Ft. He farm beside the river.

Example 5.
A = ...tii dinge a kurota.
              V   N   Adp  N
Gl.  Put calabash on dry-plate
Ft.  He put the calabash on top of dry-plate.
B = ...hwak ɓota a dube.
             V     N  Adp  N
Gl.  Fix on stick on roof 
Ft. He fixes a stick on top of the roof.
C = ...kəngkəh a ɗura.
           V     Adp  N
 Gl. Wear   on head
Ft. He wears it on his head.

Example 6. ā gūdū  
A = ...kad a gudu ɓota.
             V     Adp        N
Gl.     Sit  at under tree
Ft. He sits under the tree.

Example 7. á gúdúsə̄
A = ...tii a gudusə hunu.
                  V Adp.Agr.Mk  N
Gl.   Put under-Agr.Mk pot
Ft. He put it under the pot.
B = ...kõtə a gudusə ɓota.
            V   Adp Agr.Mk  N 
Gl.   till  under.Agr.Mk tree
Ft. He tills it under a tree.

Example 8. á kālə̀
A = ...botə a kalə wano.
            N  Adp    Pro.N
Gl.   Remove at near/beside mine
Ft. He removed it near me.
B = ...dum a kalə sibo.
            V     Adp      N
Gl.  Lost at near/beside forest
Ft. It was lost near the forest.
C = ...tãh a kalə õ.
            V   Adp    N 
Gl. Weed a near/beside farmland
    Ft. He weeds near the farm.

4.3              The Grammatical distinct properties of the various types of adposition in the language are classified as follows
The adpositional type |ɗá - ' in/ into' |is always explaining the situation of something that can be taken out of a middle of a crowd, town, inside a bottle as a target or goal and it can also be an accomplishment verb depending on the verbal aspect that is taking in a clause as in example 1b. While, | ə̀n  - ' with' | has to do with and instrument being used to do something with it. The | á wírə̄ - 'in front of' |, is giving an additional information of the location of something next to a particular area, or locating after somebody. Another one is | á ẽ́ -  ' at the side of' |, this explain the position/location of something at the edge of a thing. The adpositional type | á - 'on /at' |, is more of showing the position of something on top of the roof, table or above anything that separate the object from the Earth surface, so is more of Locative high. While the type | ā gūdū -  ' under / at |, is an opposite of | | á - 'on /at' |, showing that the focus of the position is under not on top. Next is | á gúdúsə̄ -  ' at | under' |, a type that shows the position of someone being under with an agreement marking of his/her position or putting something under the weight of something. Lastly, | á kālə̀ -   ' near | beside' |, showing the closeness distance between tow or more object, it can also locate something being near or beside of somebody or something.

4.2 = List                                   Lexical category
  i         ɗá                            Container/round or in a hold.
  ii       ə̀n                           Instrument.
  iii      á wírə̄                        Locative Position/ Object.
  iv      á ẽ́                          Edge.
  v                                    Inanimate Position
  vi      ā gūdū                               Inanimate.       
  vii     á gúdúsə̄                    Inanimate Locative
   viii    á kālə̀                       Animate Locative/inanimate.
4.3 The structure of the adpositional Phraseː- Looking at the above examples, the structure of the adpositional phrase is almost always come after a verb and before or followed by a noun. Even though some noun can appear with the verb or in-between the verb and the adpositional marker but this is optional.
      Therefore, the core template of the adpositional phrase can be seen in two different ways as follow.        
Core Template Adp Phː- Verb ---> Adp.Mk ---> Noun.
Optional Templateː V ---> Pro.N ---> Adp ---> N.

5. Verbal Morphologyː-Verbs are the semantic and usually syntactic, heads of the clumps that are part of. In verbal morphology, the root of the verb normally take the | -o | as its nominative case ending and depending on the verbal aspect which will change to another suffix or take | -yo | as its ending and both suffixes are bound morpheme. Though it can have almost the same structure as in noun classes but this is not in agreement of noun suffixes because verbs, at times has it suffix and it doesn't respect pattern of noun classes, due to it irregular counterpart as is in English language. Another prefix is the | - sə | which appeared in a clause as a suffix in agreement to the noun in the sentence, even though the speakers of the language can not tell why it appears because if you look at it narrowly, you may be deceive that is there because of it naturalness.
      Here are some affixes that appeared in the verbal morphology based on the data present in grammar research.

Normal Verbal Suffixes: - The following suffixes suggest the nominative and accusative marker in Yungur Pəra.
| -yo | '-ing' In a verb to come. This is a nominative marking continuous or progressive aspect.
| -o | '-ø' In a verb to come. It is a bound morpheme as a nominal verb in the language.  
| -sin | '- it' in a verb to ripe. It is attached to a verb to make emphasis of the subject in the                                         clause, but a bound morpheme too.  
| ko-n| '-ed' in a verb to received. It takes a past meaning in a clause and a completive meaning,                                  at time when it appeared with an irregular verb, it carries particle                                        sense in the clause.
|waa-rə| '-not' in a negational verb to farm. It always means not but attached to an irregular verbs                                        or a verbs that can not take |ku-| a pro-negational marker.
Verb repetitionː- As many African languages has verb repetitions in order to make more                                                 emphasis or focusing in the predicate in a clause, this language has                                  some verbs that seem to be repetitive verb in a habitual aspect.
| siu-siu-ya | 'now-now-the' In a verb now. It shows that the action will take place without a                               delay and as a habitual or manner of seriousness.
| rang-rang | 'ripen-ripen' in a verb to ripen. It is the same thing that is happening with the above                                 explanation.
|kal-kal| 'again-again' in habitual past tenses a verb again. It's an emphasis of the habitualness.
    Lengthening of a vowelː- In this Language, those irregular verbs always carries the |-re| suffix to attached to it verb root and omit |ku-| which is a target marker for negation before |-re| 'not', otherwise it has to lengthen the vowel before it carry |-re| 'not' again. That is why the following verbs appeared with this two possible affixes depending on how the word order are in the clause based on the data present in grammar research. Found under verb classes.   
| we-e-re| 'ripe-ø-not' in a negational verb not ripen.
|kon-də| in a negational verb don't received.
|ko-rə| 'go-not' in a negational verb not going.
    Nominal Affixes
|ɓa-kə| 'they-will' in a future verb they will.
|wad-sə| 'when-agreement Mk' in a habitual completive verb used to go.
|wad-so| 'when-agreement Mk' in a habitual verb used to go
|kəb-sin| 'eat-it' in a completive past tense verb has eaten.
|wad-ɗa| 'when-in/to' in a future and past tense, a verb to go in or 'at a certain place'.
|wir-at| 'see-him' in an immediate past tense, a verb to see someone (unspecified only him/her/it).
|nə-a-d| 'give-him-ø' in mood and modality, a verb to give him/her/it.
|kəb-rə| 'eat-not' in an interrogative negational verb meaning not eating.
|toɗ-at| 'kill-him' in a content question, a verb to kill him/her/it.
|hok-at| 'bury-him' in a content question, a verb to bury him/her/it.
     The above nominal verbs that are attached to such affixes, it's happen in an oral speech only but lexically it does not appeared with it. This can be proved by the fast and slow speech that was collected in a text collection assignment for discourse analysis and literacy course next academic year. So by corresponding to the field work data base with text collection, these affixes can be qualified as grammatical affixes not lexically.

6.                  Verb Classesː- In verb classes, there are intransitive, transitive's verb, ditransitives activities state and achievements with the accomplishments verbs are being written base in the following arguments that shows their distinctions.

      # 6.1    Intransitives verbsː- Is a verb that usually can not take an object in its clauses. The subject in the clause is also a patient or he who an action was acted open.
      For example 1ː-
      # 6.1.1 |nə̀ rēé-n| Lit = I swim-Pst.Mk.
                             Ft = I swam.
     # 6.1.2 |nə̀ hōɗō-n| Lit = I die-Pst.Mk
                               Ft. = I die.
     # 6.1.3 |nə̀ sə̄kwẽ́-n| Lit = I swallow-Pst.Mk.
                                 Ft. =I swallowed.
     Looking at the above examples, the tow predicate does not have any way of having an object in the clause but the other one can have what it has being swallowed in number 6.1.3. this was included because it sound like or a liquid intransitive verb and I have complain to the lecturer during the consultation and he request that it should be included when no any possible intransitive verb that can be found similar to the others.
     Meanwhile; in there negative forms, the predicate drop it past marker and take the normal | kū | a bound morpheme that is a target marker to the negational |ré| meaning 'not' all the time.

     # 6.2   Transitives Verbː- Transitives verb is a verb that usually requires a subject and an object in its clause. This is an opposite type of an intransitives verb.
For example 2ː-
     # 6.2.1 | Hwāhwā á tod ná-sá.| Lit = Hwāhwā he kills cow-Pl.Mk.
                                              Ft. = Hwāhwā killed some cows.
     # 6.2.2 |Də̀sə̄n á már ɓə̄ná-n.| Lit = Də̀sə̄n he built Yungur-Pst.Mk.
                                            Ft. = Də̀sə̄n bult Yungur people.
     # 6.2.3 |Pātāyàūŕe á bwét m̄brá.| Lit. = Pātāyàūŕe he filled water.
                                                 Ft. = Pātāyàūŕe filled the water.
     Going by definition, all the above clauses have both the subject at the beginning of the clause followed by the predicate and an object of the clause in agreement of the transitives verb.
In there negational part, they all |kū-| as a bound prefix marking a negation with the usual |-ré| suffix except that the 'to build' in the language, when marking it in a negational section, it needed | yāsé | 'hm', before |-ré| 'not' to make an accurate construction.

     # 6.3 Ditransitives Verb ː- Is a verb that requires a subject, an object and indirect object in its clauses in order to give a full meaning of the actual event in the clause. Below are the examples that show the ditransitives construction in Yungur pəra dialect.
     For example 3ː-
     # 6.3.1 |Ábōh á nə̄ə̄ Hímín tə̄má fíní.| Lit. = Ábōh he give Hímín sheep one.
                                                       Ft. = Aboh gave Himin one sheep.
     # 6.3.2 |Samuel ā wé Silvia mātə̀mā.| Lit. =Samuel he show Silvia medicine
                                                       Ft. = Samuel show Silvia a medicine.
     # 6.3.3 |Lāmī á tím Sabasthine ɗā sēnò.| Lit. =Lami she sends Sabasthine in river.
                                                           Ft. = Lami sent Sabasthine into a river.
              For the above examples of ditransitives verb, its has noun as a subject followed by a pronoun, then predicate and the object that was requires by the ditransitives verb with the indirect object, then an optional modifiers follows.
# 6.4   Activities Verb: -
     For example 4ː-
# 6.4.1 |Ābə̀ ɓà-n māā mbūsā ən kawo kəm.| Lit. =Children they-Agr.Mk knows things with                                                                  reading all.
                                                            Ft. =The children are knowing with reading at                                                                  once.
# 6.4.2 |nā-sə̀ ɓā-n mūn mūnú.| Lit. = cow-Pl.Mk they-Agr.Mk run runing.
                                         Ft. = The cows are runing.
# 6.4.3 |ɓ-ēt bàrā ɓā-n már hító.| Lit. =Pl.Mk-person male they-Agr.Mk builds room.
                                            Ft. = Men are at the state of building.

# 6.5   State of Verb:-
     For example 5ː-
#6.5.1  |nə̄-n kāl pēnǵ ə̄n īngā.| Lit. =I-Agr.Mk stomach white with you.
                                          Ft. = I am happy with you.
#6.5.2  |nə̀ māā ét-kén.| Lit. =I know person-someone.
                                 Ft. = I know someone.
#6.5.3  |Á-í bī gə̀d hāndə̀ ɓwālāng.| Lit. = he-is be stand place long.
                                                Ft. = He is standing far away.
# 6.6   Achievements Verb:-
     For example 6ː-
# 6.6.1 |Ábə̄ ɓá kwéréb nū-sá.| Lit. =children they blink eye-Pl.Mk.
                                          Ft. = The children blink their eyes.
 #6.6.2 |Árə̄ kéé pə̄lém.| Lit. = fire flash out.
                                  Ft. = The fire flash out. Or the fire explored out.
#6.6.3  |Sūmbōrə̀ pám pwés.| Lit. =egg pop out.
                                        Ft. = An egg po out.

# 6.7   Accomplishments Verb:-
     For example 3ː-
# 6.7.1 |Nū-sə̀ ābə̀ wā gwāró wél-wél.| Lit. =eye-Pl.Mk children it becomes red-red.
                                                     Ft. = The eyes of children is becoming red.
# 6.7.2 |Dàūrə̀ wāngó wá rĩ́-yó.| Lit. =cloth your it wet-img.
                                            Ft. =Your cloth is becoming wet.
# 6.7.3 |ɓót ánáɓé wāngó wā sáng-ō.| Lit. = tree pawpaw your it grow-ing.
                                                   Ft. = Your pawpaw tree is growing up.

7.                  Simple clause structure: - The following are the simple clauses in Yungur pəra dialect with their structures and glosses.

# 7.1          NP            PP            V.
            Yauto        a             won.
                   Name      he           came
                  Yauto came back.
# 7.2          NP            PP             V            NP             NP.
         Mayanau      a            nəə       Silvia     namu.
                Name          he          gave          name       meat
               Mayanau  gave Silvia a meat.
# 7.3          NP             PP              V          NP.
           Padio       a           kar      piro.
                 Name          he            look        horse
                 Padio looks at the horse.
# 7.4          NP             PP           V               NP           NP.
            James      a        nəə     Solomon    takadɗa.
                   Name        he         gave         name             book
                   James gave Solomon a book.
# 7.5          NP            AUX.V           V           NP. 
        Gayaure       ai          waa      buto.
                Name            he is      farm/cultivate ground
                Gayaure is farming.
# 7.6          NP             PP            V             NP            NP.
              Samuel    a         wah       Doyo      ɗariyo.
              Name     he        inject     name      injection
              Samuel gave Doyo an injection.

For some examples that can be found in the data not here in write-up.
# 7.7          NP             PP             V            NP            NP.
# 7.8          NP             PP             V            NP            NP.
# 7.9          NP             PP             V            NP.
# 7.10        NP            AUX.V          V             NP.

7.1.2                    Clauses: - For example.

#    NP            PP             V            NP            Aux.V           V            PP.
                 Saul           a             wo-ən     takad-ɗə           ai              tii          a
                  Name       he          come with  book.Agr.M   he is          put        on        
          Saul came with the book and put it on a table.
#    NP            PP              V           NP              NP             NP            Adv.Mn
                  Peter           a              gəb      Gahman    ɗa Dumne ən   pirə          kpus.
                  Name        he              hit         name       in   name  with  horse      manner
                 Peter hits Gahman at Dumne with the horse very suddenly.   
#    NP            PP             V           NP            Adv.Mn            V            PP.
            Himin        a              wo      ən gbere         a-ya                nəə          ɓa
            Name        he           come  with goat         he-be at          give         them
         kwel mwan.
        Quickly only
        Himin came with a goat and gave them very quickly.
#    NP            PP             V            NP            AUX.V            V
                  Kefas        a             wo-ən      gbere              ai                nəə  
                  Name       he         come with   goat              he-is            give        
       ɓa Dio.
       Them home
        Kefas came with a goat and gave them at home.

8                   Grammatical relation: - In Yungur pəra, pronoun play a vital role in relation to the subject and verb. The pronoun in the language always follows a noun (name) of the person as a subject in the clause. Noun always come first before a verb or and auxiliary verb then noun phrase or its modifiers in the clause. the word / ən / meaning ' with, and ' is also an agreement or subordinate marker in agreement with the first part of the clause as a phrase that join the two together in order to form a clause.

# 8.1          Grammatical Relations: - In Yungur Pəra dialect; the grammatical relations of subject object and indirect object is being mark by word order. In most cases, the subject in the clause comes before nuclear in a clause and followed by object before indirect object. While at times there will be particles in-between direct and indirect object. 
# 8.2          The grammatical relations in the language has to do with word order especially that of the subject and object, but as for the indirect object it can be mark by case marking on pronoun been attach to verb.
                  Some properties of the subject (person, number, gender) may be reflected in agreement marking on the verb. The verb agrees in person and number with the singular noun phrase. The following examples are showing the distinctions of grammatical properties of the grammatical relations in Yungur Pəra.
      The semantic properties of a subject. (Semantic role) the subject is the most agents like argument in a clause, the doer of the action. Even though is not accurate in some example sentences in the single argument, traditionally considered to be the 'subject', has undergoer (patient) role.
For example in verb agreement.
1    A tii pwe ɗa hitpwe.
     Ft. = he put a knife in it shell.
2   A tii pwe ən nemaye ɗa hitpwe.
     Ft. =He put a knife into it shell with his own hand.
3      A kar bwe ən lu piraa.
     Ft. =He looks at the dog with his eye.
      Grammar relation in a noun phrase. Meanwhile, a grammar relation in a noun phrase, the simplest illustration of a grammatical relation is the genitive relation that may hold between nouns is as noun phrase.
      Grammar relation in classes. The simplest illustration of a grammatical relation in a clause is probably the subject relation that may hold between a noun and a verb (more accurately, a noun phrase and a verb phrase) the subject refers to an agent while the object in a clause refers to as patient.
9.   Focus constructionsː-
 There are bother verbs in the focus construction that attach to a prefix that can tell whether the question is focusing on the subject or an object, the whole event either.
For example, in a verb | tod | ' to kill', the focus on the subject in the question must always have | yá̄ | 'who' with an agreement marker |-sə̄ | 'agreement' with the question marker | yāú | either. This type of question marker is also in agreement of verb that is in the clause because the |-ú| morpheme are the real question marker, but it is a bound morpheme. It must be attach to another bound morpheme to mark a question marker.
     In Argument Noun Phrase focusː- When responding to a question, you must add | yásé | 'himself' in order to indicate the subject.
While in a verb | kə̄b | ' to eat', when asking a question on the subject, you need to use | yánáá | 'who' unlike the | who | in a verb ' to kill', and the object or patient |génó| carry the particle | -n |. But in a negational part, the objects ending |-o| change to |-ə| in agreement with the negative marker. This is a phonological realization rather than a grammatical argument because the negative marker begins with the back or velar consonant. It also uses the same question marker with the verb to kill. In reply to the question, the word | yásé | meaning ' himself '.
 Because it is focuses on the subject in the clause.
In contrast to the above argument, the verb |wĩ́ĩ́ | 'to fall' has a different question marker but the real bound morpheme that focuses on the subject is the same.
For exampleː-
Questionː-  |yánə̄ ā tód sə̄ bwé yāú?| Lit = who he kill Agr.Mk dog Quet.Mk
                                                 Ft  =Who kill the dog?
Replyː-      | Yàútō á tód bwé yásé.| Lit = Yauto he kill dog himself.
                                               Ft = It was Yauto who killed the dog.
While in a predicate | kə̄b | 'to eat', the analysis is as followː-
Questionː- | yánáá kə̄b-sə̀ genə yāú?| Lit =who eat-Agr.Mk soup Quet.Mk.
                                                 Ft = who ate the food?
Replyː- |Yàútō á kə̄b génə̄ yásé.| Lit =Yauto he eat soup himself.
                                             Ft = it was Yauto who ate the food.

    In Predicate Verb Focusː- In predicate focus, the word | tóm | 'do' is being added to emphasis or put focus on the verb. You can not begin by using | yánə́ | or | yánáá | meaning who because the focus is on the verb that is why they use /tom/ 'to do' with it question marker | mə̄nāú | 'what' to ask for the typology of verb/an action that was done within an event. In respond to the question, a speaker will use a pronoun | á | 'he,she or it to answer the question with repeating the verb like a word | kə̄b | 'to eat' will be in respond  |á kə̄b kə̄fə̀| meaning he eat eat. By using this repetitive verb, a person that ask the question will now understand what had happen and it sound natural.
    In Adjunct Prepositional Phrase focus constructionː- Because the focus is on the instrument or and object that was use in the event, the question will be | yàútō á tōd bwé ə̄n mbiu? |, the word | ə̄n mbiu? | meaning 'with what is a core marker that shows the focus is on the instrument or an object that was use in a predicate. In reply to the question, the speaker will use | yàútō á tōd bwé ə̄n ɓōtā| Lit =yauto he kill dog with stick.
            FT = 'Yauto kill the dog with a stick.'
The so called pattern of preposition following a noun must be maintained in respect of the accuracy with agreement construction. Unlike noun which start with a subject in a statement with a word |yánáá, or yánə̄| in marking a question, while in predicate clauses, it focus construction begin with |tóm| in question marking with the repetition of a verb in reply to the question.
    Sentence Focus Construction markingː- In sentence construction marking, the speaker is asking a question on the whole event that had happen, so because the reason is quite different with the other focus construction marking, Yungur pəra dialect also has it different way of construction. The following example shows the different construction marking in the dialect.
     When an insident happen, and some one did not know what had happen, he will construct a question as
Questionː |mbū tō mbīú?| Lit = things do what?
                                   Ft = what happen?
Replyː   |Yauto a tod bwe ən ɓota.| Lit = Yauto he kill dog with stick.
                                               Ft =Yauto kill the dog with a stick.
Looking at the above analysis, a verb ' do ' has tow different way of writing it in the language; it can be written as |tōm| or |tō| depending of the word the follows it. This happen just because of the phonological reasons in agreement of the prenasalization of |b| in question marking such as |mbīú| meaning what? And the reply carries it usual pattern as noun followed by preposition, verb, object with the instrument that was use in the clause to give a speaker a full image of what had happen.
  General Evaluation of the focus constructionsː- Looking at the above explicitly of the four different constructions, it has it own different way of constructing them base on the verb, noun, adjuct, or sentence focusing. There will be always a new word for each focus construction or word order can dictate the focus marker within a type of focus construction.    

     10. Multiclause Constructionsː- In multicaluse construction, there are many sub clauses that are join together in other to explain the situation behind the speaker view either in coordinate with someone or something, otherwise; in relation to the subordinate or relational clauses. It is describing the structure of sentences which contain more than one clause. This section can only be explicit only on there sub-classes belowː-

 # 10.1     Coordinationː- The following are the examples of coordination clauseː-
     # 10.1.1         Liura a tii kətamə a mbusə mbwat, mwe wu wad ndər ɗa urə mbwat, kolo a too bi yase kolo a nəə yause yaye biya. Nə tau təwa hẽ ɓwaa toɗat kure.
     Ft. =God blessed everything and it went very well, he either took it himself or he gave it to his friend. I shot a guinea fowl but the bullet didn;t kill it.
     # 10.1.2         Nə wo ən namu mə ai yo yi nəə Yongon mwe a nəə satso ai lo biya, kolo ambə ɓa bəɗaɗan, in nə wir ɓa kure.
     Ft. =I brought the meat so that he will go and give Yongon, and when he gave him, and if the follows him back, I didn't know.
     # 10.1.3         A timad uro ən ɗira, mwe ai wad bi ɗa Dumne, hẽ a wadso, ai wad yi gəb ɓa gbere kinso.
     Ft. = He sent him yesterday in the evening, then he went to Dumne, while he went there, he went and hits them a goat.
     Based on the above examples of coordinate clauses, the coordinate markers in the language are |mwe| meaning 'then, and', |kolo| meaning ' whether, either, while' and comma in the clauses. The coordinate clauses can always come after the first phrase in the clause followed by another coordinate statement.

  # 10.2    Relative Clauseː- The following examples bellow shows the relative clauses in Yungur Pəraː-
     # 10.2.1         A hal kəra wayo səu a tir so, nə maa etye a tirsə butə wan, et siya a tirsə butə wa ai kat Prambe, ɓã a kwan nəso mang kure.
Ft. = He cleared the field which he had bought, I know the man who bought the field, the man bought the field lives in Prambe, the money which he gave me wasn't enough.
     # 10.2.2         A mar dio ɗa hansəb a tir son, ngə maa etye a marsatso dio wan, maro a marso mang ɓã a kwan satso mə ai mar wu ren.
     Ft. = He build the house in the plot that he bought, you know the person that he built the house for him, the house which he had built it's not up to an amount that he paid him to build it.
     # 10.2.3         Ngə wir etye a haktə sə ən Pirɓã wan, etsiya a haktəse ən Pirɓã wa, a gəb ɓa awe, ausi a gəbsatso a ruh ku yase re, hẽ et Pirɓã siya ai wad biya.
     Ft. = You saw the person that passed with the car, the person that passes with the car, he hits the child, it wasn't the child's fault, but the person that hits him went away.

# 10.3      Complement Clausesː- The complement clauses in Yungur Pəra are written below as its examples.
     # 10.3.1         Nə maa mə akə won, Pane a yau mə nawo, Nən ɗim mə Pane akə wo, tə yau mə ngawo.
     Ft. = I know that he will come, my father wants me to come, I think that my father will come, we want you to come.
     # 10.3.2         A maa mə nə ween, tenane a yau mə naa ween, ai ɗim mə nə ko na wee, ɓa yau mə no na wee.
     Ft. = She knows that I will drink, my wife wants me to drink, she is thinking that I will go and drink, they want me to go and drink it.
     # 10.3.3         Ngə nəad bud səwa, a maa mə ngə kəyi nəən, hẽn ndarə ai tau ngə son, a yau mə yi waa bud səwan, hẽn ndarə ngə nəə atso.
     Ft. = You gave him that land, he konws that you will give him, that is why he asks you, he wants to farm on that land, that is why you gave him the land.,

# 10.4      Adverbial Clausesː-
     # 10.4.1         Nə yau mə ai yau siuya, akə wo kətəkətə, Nən ɗim mə pane akə wo ən kal gwãã, tə yau mə ngau ən kal penge.
     Ft. = I want him to come quickly, he will come forceful, I am thinking that my father will come very angry; we want you to come very happily.
     # 10.4.2         A ɗim mə ngə wo sakat, ngau nga tom kwel mwan, ngə lo bəngə wa gah nah, hẽ ngə wo ko ɓe ɗo a ɗim so re, wa kalə ngwãã ɗan.
     Ft. = He thinks that you will come quickly, you will come and do it on time, and return back early, but you didn't come as he expects you, so he was angry.
     # 10.4.3         A haktə siusiuya, hẽ arə wu leh pəlem, shiuya ɓan ɗim mə au hakto a haktəsə gbirit wu tom yase hẽ arə wu le.
     Ft. = He passes now, nowǃ before a fire break out, now they are thinking that it could be because he passes forcefully, that is why a fire break out.
     Adverbial clauses carries the word like |siusiuya| meaning now now, |kətəkətə| meaning 'forceful, sharply' |sakat| meaning 'immediately, quickly' in order to show adverbial phrase or clause of time, manner. Though in adverbial clauses, almost all the markers has verb repetition.

# 10.5      Simultaneous Clausesː- The following examples are examples of simultaneous clauses in Yungur Pəra.
     # 10.5.1         A hir hira, a bersəu tonə ɓan tosə binsə ɓoso wa, ai bi ɗa, biya kau mbusa.
     Ft. = He danced, while the women sang their songs, he is sitting, reading a book.
     # 10.5.2         A karat dum, ai roh mamə pwarat, a bersəu ɓa bam ɓasə kãmə nusə wa, a kwereb hẽ mamə wu boro, wa et siya ai kettə kettən lausə mwan.
     Ft. = He looks at him straight, his tears was drop, at the time they look at each other, an eye to an eye, he blinks before his tears drop out, while the person was turning his face towards him.
     # 10.5.3         A gər kãmə koma, ai hĩĩ, tiɓə roso, ai rəkə aya tãã,  ai tikə yi hĩĩ malla, aya ɓuku au da mung.
     Ft. = He search for a corn seed, he stored it, when the rain falls, he plan and weeds it, he harvest it and put on a trashing floor, he come and harvest so many.
     In simultaneous clauses, the comma is much important the same as English language and it maintained the pronoun that is being used at the beginning of the clause or the subject of in the clause is always maintained.

# 10.6      Time Clausesː- Time clause is a clause that gives a statement base on the time frame of an event or period of event. The following examples are the example of time clause in Yungur Pəra dialect.
     # 10.6.1         ɓan twed sə gbadərə wa, naa a munda, a ber səu ɓan wadso, naa a kwaa kiyo.
     Ft. = I was sleeping when the bell rang, I was cutting grasses while they were going.
     # 10.6.2         Ai woso, naa nən ko a yaɓo, a ber səu nən koso a yaɓo wa, ai yaa yau yau kən.
     Ft. = While they were coming, at the moment that I was going to bath, he was coming in.
     # 10.6.3         Ngən wirat so a ber səu wa, ai ya yi sək ɓa Pirɓã, a ber səu ai wo sən rumtə biri wa, ngaa ngən kankan ɗa hitə kən.
     Ft. = As you were seeing him atthat time, he was repairing them a car, while he was coming very dirty, you were going on the bed.
     Time clauses always has a word |ber-səu|, the səu there is also a free morpheme which it means 'that', but the whole word there means 'ta the time that, or at the time', it can appeared either separately or join together depending on the verb construction in the clauses. So this word appeared to be a time marker in a time clauses.
# 10.7      Location Clausesː- The location clauses describe a location of an event or position that the event has taken place in it clauses. Below are its examples.
     # 10.7.1         Nə wo a nangə nii ən ɗiira, a ɗabsəu ɓaɓila ɓan katso.
              Ft. = I will meet you, where the old men sit in the evening.
     # 10.7.2         Nəh wo a ɗabsəu ɓan tesə tiyo wa, nau nəngə nəə fəle kinso.
              Ft. = I will come at the place where they are blacksmithing, I will come and give you hoe ther.
     # 10.7.3         ɓa yau mə  ɓən ko a ɗabsəu ndə nausə təwasə wa ɗen.
              Ft. = They want to go were we've trapped some guinea fowl tomorrow.
     A locational clause must always have a word |á| meaning 'at' in order to show the location of the event or a target place were by the speaker is specifying in a statement. At times, it carries an additional free morphemic suffix |a ɗab-səu| Lit. = at place-that, meaning 'at that place' in order to be a locative marker of the clause.

# 10.8      Purpose Clausesː-  
     # 10.8.1         A tir sinya ko, məyin kəb bi ən ɗiira.
              Ft. = He bought some fish to eat in the evening.
     # 10.8.2         A wad məyin koya ɗaktad ɗakta, a bersəu ngə woso, mə wuyi tom song.
              Ft. = He wants to go and slap him at the time that you come, so that it will pleases himself.
     # 10.8.3         Ai waa butə məyin kəb a ɗora ɗo am Larə ɓan waaso.
              Ft. = He is farming because, he want to eat on hunger, as how the Laro people did.
     In purpose clauses, the word |mə-yi-n| Lit. = because-Rfl.he-ø? Meaning ' because he/ so that'. This word is being used in purpose clauses as it purpose marker and it must come before the purpose of the action in the clause.

# 10.9      Reason Clausesː- It is a clauses that explain the reason behind the persons act. Here are some examples in Yungur Pəra which shows the reasons in a clause.
     # 10.9.1         A tir sinya mə ɗorə bwanat bwana.
              Ft. = He bought some fish because he was hungry.
     # 10.9.2         A ɗaktad mə a gwããt kale uro a mbu a tomso ən ɗiirə wa.
              Ft. = He lapt him because he made him angry yesterday.
     # 10.9.3         Ai wo ya karat gah mbwat ya mə a kwal gba.
              Ft. = He use to come look at her everyday because she is very pretty.
     Reasons clauses carries |mə| word meaning ' because to show a reasons behind the subject of a clause. Therefore the word |mə| in the above clauses its carries a reason meaning and it always come first before the reason of an action.

# 10.10     Conditional Clausesː- This are clauses that based it information's on some instances that whether or not, it may or may not. It indicate an uncertainty of a situation showing that either its true or hesitation. Below are its examples.
     # 10.10.1       Maa rim ngə nii, ngə hoɗo, mən tom ɗo a rim ngan nii, hẽ ngə hoɗon.
               Ft. = If it bites you, you will die, if it had bitten you, you would have died.
     # 10.10.2       Mən tom ɗo ngə wosin nii, hẽ ngə daa namu bəng kənən, kah məa wir ngə nii,hẽ akəng nəə bəng kən.
              Ft. = Had it being that you come, you would have gotten meat likewise, if he had seen you, he would have given you likewise.
     # 10.10.3       Məngə tawad nii, kahẽ a nəə ngə ban, lo aisəso, mən tom ɗo a maa məngə yau nii, hẽ a nəə ngan.
              Ft. = If you have asked him, he should have given you, as he was having, if he knows that you want it, he would have given you.
     In conditional clauses, the language has a word |mə| which can have the following meaning but depending on the verb and aspect marking in a clause, 'if, because, then, when'. But at times tones also differentiate the meaning. Anyway, in this clauses above, it carries the 'if' meaning. At times it also has a phonological reasoning that the word must be attached to some suffixes like |mə-ngə| meaning 'if you' or |mə-n| meaning 'if' in a past clauses. In some verbal aspect, it changes to |ma-a| the lenthegthening of |a| vowel is a pronoun but attached to |mə| that means 'if' as it usually attached to pronoun. So the word |maa| means 'if he/she/it' in the above clause as well as a conditional marker.

10.3               Cosubordination.
# 10.3.0    Themeː-
     #      Naa sãh genə ɗa hunu.
              Ft. = I am cooking food inside the pot.
     #      Aya botə ɓã ɗa lakəpite.
              Ft. = She is removing some money from her pocket.
     #      Aya wee mbra ɗa kənnda.
              Ft. = He is drinking water from the bottle.
     The above examples of the theme, has the |ɗa| in a clause showing the target of the theme in the clause so as to indicate that theme in the clause is being specified.

# 10.3.1.   Instrumentː-
     #      Nə nəəng namu ən pwe.
              Ft. = I cut the meat with knife.
     #      A gəb bwe ən Pirɓã.
              Ft. = He hits the dog with the car.
     #      A chik ɓota ən kato.
              Ft. = She cut the tree with an axe.
     In the instrument clauses, there will always be |ən| meaning 'with' and followed by the instrument that was used in a clause for acting open the patient.

# 10.3.2.   Benefactiveː-
     #      Ai gwẽẽ ɓa mbra.
              Ft. = He is fecthing the water for them.
     #      Ai ko yoyi sobɓa dauta.
              Ft. = He is going to wash cloth for them.
     #      Ai sãh ɓa geno.
              Ft. = He is cooking for them.
     Benefactives in this language its used to carry a pronouns in place of the person who is enjoying the action or beneficiary. The word |ɓa| there in a clauses is a benefactive marker.  

# 10.3.3    Comparativeː-
     #      Nə sãh mung wu wat yange.
              Ft. = I cooked so many more than yours.
     #      A tau təwasə mung wu wat yange.
              Ft. = He shot guinear fowl more than yours.
     #      A sãh ɓa genə mung wu wat yange.
     In comparatives clause, the word |wu wat| meaning 'more than' it's always appeared to be a comparatives marker in an argumentative comparism.

Abstractː- The above evaluation of grammar sketch of Yungur Pəra dialect has not yet being a final evaluation of this target dialect but it has meet up to a standard precaution of this target group. It will be further improved as a book in further study for the language to have a literature on the grammar analysis and a study note on how the language behaves grammatically. This theory is not yet the final project because it's being restricted to the academic demand rather than the public writing.


Raymond G Gordon, Jr Editro: Ethnologue. Language of the world. Dallas, Texas USA 2005.

Crozier .D. H & Blech .R .M: Index of Nigerian Languages. Plt, 1992.

[1] . Raymond G Gordon, Jr Editro: Ethnologue. Language of the world. Dallas, Texas USA 2005. P.55
[2] . D H Crozier & R M Blech: Index of Nigerian Languages. Plt, 1992. P.123
[3] . Raymond G Gordon. Jr Etor, 2005. P.55